A Glossary of Photographic Terms: O-P

Off-The-Film Metering
A meter which determines exposure by reading light reflected from the film during picture-taking.

Ortho (Orthochromatic)
Denotes film sensitive to blue and green light.

Overexposure
A condition in which too much light reaches the film, producing a dense negative or a very light print or slide.

"P"-Format
"Pan" format - one of the three selectable Advanced Photo System print formats; a 1:3 aspect ratio that produces prints of 3.5 x 10.5 inches or up to 4.5 x 11.5 inches; suitable for panoramic shots and tall or wide subjects. See also Aspect Ratio and Interspersed Aspect Ratio.

Pan (Panchromatic)
Designation of films that record all colors in tones of about the same relative brightness as the human eye sees in the original scene, sensitive to all visible wave-lengths.

Panning
Moving the camera so that the image of a moving object remains in the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take a picture.
Panning example- running horses Photographer: Lequita Burch
KINSA/KODAK Photo Contest
Film: KODAK EKTAR 125
Film Size: 35 mm

Panorama
A broad view, usually scenic.
Mother and children sitting on top of mountain-Adirondak Mountains

Photographer: Don Cochran
Film: KODAK FUN SAVER Panoramic
Film Size: 35 mm

Parallax
With a lens-shutter camera, parallax is the difference between what the viewfinder sees and what the camera records, especially at close distances. This is caused by the separation between the viewfinder and the picture-taking lens. There is no parallax with single-lens-reflex cameras because when you look through the viewfinder, you are viewing the subject through the picture-taking lens.

Perforations
Regularly and accurately spaced holes punched throughout the length of 35 mm film for still cameras.

Photo File Index Print
A basic system feature that makes ordering reprints and enlargements easy; the small print shows a positive, "thumbnail"-sized version of every picture on an Advanced Photo System film roll; accompanies all prints and negatives returned in the sealed film cassette by the photofinisher; each thumbnail picture is numbered on the index print to match negative frames inside the cassette.
Advanced Photo System index print Advanced Photo System film rolls with index print

Photofinisher Service Certification
Program developed by the System Developing Companies to give special recognition to photofinishers and retailers who provide the minimum Advanced Photo System feature set; an identifying logo signals to consumers which photofinishers and retailers provide all of the mandatory benefits of the system.

Polarizing Screen (Filter)
A filter that transmits light traveling in one plane while absorbing light traveling in other planes. When placed on a camera lens or on light sources, it can eliminate undesirable reflections from a subject such as water, glass, or other objects with shiny surfaces. This filter also darkens blue sky.

Positive
The opposite of a negative, an image with the same tonal relationships as those in the original scenes-for example, a finished print or a slide.

Print
A positive picture, usually on paper, and usually produced from a negative.

Printing Frame
A device used for contact printing that holds a negative against the photographic paper. The paper is exposed by light from an external light source.

Printing-in
(See Burning-in)

Processing
Developing, fixing, and washing exposed photographic film or paper to produce either a negative image or a positive image.

Program Exposure>
An exposure mode on an automatic or autofocus camera that automatically sets both the aperture and the shutter speed for proper exposure.

Projected Frame
(See Finder)

Push Processing
Increasing the development time of a film to increase its effective speed (raising the ISO number for initial exposure ) for low-light situations; forced development.

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