A Glossary of Photographic Terms: Q-S

Rangefinder
A device included on many cameras as an aid in focusing.

Reflector
Any device used to reflect light onto a subject.

Reciprocity
Most films are designed to be exposed within a certain range of exposure times-usually between 1/15 second to 1/1000 second. When exposure times fall outside of this range-becoming either significantly longer or shorter-a film's characteristics may change. Loss of effective film speed, contrast changes, and (with color films) color shifts are the three common results. These changes are called reciprocity effect.

Reticulation
Cracking or distorting of the emulsion during processing, usually caused by wide temperature or chemical-activity differences between the solutions.

Retouching
Altering a print or negative after development by use of dyes or pencils to alter tones of highlights, shadows, and other details, or to remove blemishes.

RF Output
The playback output level of the recorded FM signal. Lower RF output levels can result in increased noise levels in the playback signal.

Safelight
An enclosed darkroom lamp fitted with a filter to screen out light rays to which film and paper are sensitive.

Safety Interlock
A feature on all Kodak Advantix cameras that prevents the film door from opening mid-roll and exposing film to light.

Saturation
An attribute of perceived color, or the percentage of hue in a color. Saturated colors are called vivid, strong, or deep. Desaturated colors are called dull, weak, or washed out.

SDC System Developing Companies
Kodak and four other photo industry leaders who jointly developed the Advanced Photo System standards.

Selective Focus
Choosing a lens opening that produces a shallow depth of field. Usually this is used to isolate a subject by causing most other elements in the scene to be blurred.

SensaLite
Trademark for patented Kodak flash technology, employed in Kodak Advantix cameras, that automatically determines when flash is needed.

Shutter
Blades, a curtain, plate, or some other movable cover in a camera that controls the time during which light reaches the film.

Shutter Priority
An exposure mode on an automatic or autofocus camera that lets you select the desired shutter speed; the camera sets the aperture for proper exposure. If you change the shutter speed, or the light level changes, the camera adjusts the aperture automatically.

Sidelighting
Light striking the subject from the side relative to the position of the camera; produces shadows and highlights to create modeling on the subject.
Sidelighting example-Tooth brushes in holder Photographer: Annette M. McCoy
KINSA/KODAK Photo Contest
Film: KODAK GOLD Plus 100
Film Size: 35 mm

Simple Camera
A camera that has few or no adjustments to be made by the picture-taker. Usually, simple cameras have only one size of lens opening and one or two shutter speeds and do not require focusing by the picture-taker.

Single-Lens-Reflex (SLR) Camera
A camera in which you view the scene through the same lens that takes the picture.

Slide
A photographic transparency (positive) mounted for projection.

Soft Focus
Produced by use of a special lens that creates soft outlines.
Soft focus example Photographer: Allan J. Carrano
KINSA/KODAK Photo Contest
Film: KODAK EKTACHROME 400
Film Size: 120

Soft Lighting
Lighting that is low or moderate in contrast, such as on an overcast day.

Spotting
Retouching a processed print with a pencil or brush (with watercolors or dyes) to eliminate spots left by dust or scratches on the negative.

Stain
Discolored areas on film or paper, usually caused by contaminated developing solutions or by insufficient fixing, washing, or agitation.

Stop Bath
An acid rinse, usually a weak solution of acetic acid, used as a second step when developing black-and-white film or paper. It stops development and makes the hypo (fixing bath) last longer.

Stopping Down
Changing the lens aperture to a smaller opening; for example, from f/8 to f/11.

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